Chinese Pronunciation: The Complete Guide for Beginner (2023)

Pronunciation is the basic part of mastering mandarin Chinese. If you want to learn this language well, it`s necessary to lay a good foundation about Chinese pronunciation at the beginning.

No matter which level are you in, making sure your pronunciation correctly is definitely necessary and never too late. All in all, a good beginning is half the battle. With this guide, you can learn Chinese pronunciation easier in a correct way.

Part 1: What is Pinyin?

Chinese is not a phonetic language. The pronunciation is not related to the writing of Chinese words (characters). Pinyin is the special system, created for people to learn Mandarin pronunciation. Pinyin transcribes the Chinese characters so people can pronounce it. It may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers or electronics as well.

The writing of Pinyin is similar to English alphabet. You can pronounce every single sound out in Chinese using pinyin. However, you should aware that the Chinese pronunciation and spelling of pinyin letters are different from English letters. The sounds, which the letters of pinyin represent, do not correspond exactly to the sounds that the letters of English represent. So you can`t pronounce pinyin as if they were English. E.g


One Chinese sound is associated with one syllable and each Chinese character has its own pinyin syllable.

There are three parts in a pinyin syllable, which are the Initial, Final and Tone. Initial and final represent thesegmental phoneticportion of the language, rather than letter by letter.

Chinese PinYin Chart with Audio (click here)

(Video) Learn Chinese Alphabet | Mandarin Pinyin Pronunciation Guide

Part 2: What is Tones?

Mandarin Chinese is a tonal language, which means that the way a sound is pronounced directly affects the meaning of what is said. Mandarin’s tones give the language a very distinctive quality, but the tones can also be a source of miscommunication if not given due attention.

There are four main tones and one neutral tone in mandarin Chinese (or, as some say, five tones). Each tone has a distinctive pitch contour, which can be graphed using the following Chinese 5-level system.

First ToneHigh and level sound, naturally prolonged.A straight horizontal line: ˉ

e.g. mā

Second ToneRising tone, from low to high,

just like the pitch in question

A rising diagonal line:ˊ

e.g. má

Third ToneFirst falling and then going up againA curved “dipping” line: ˇ

e.g. mǎ

Forth ToneTotal falling tone which starts out very high and falls short and strongA dropping diagonal line:ˋ

e.g. mà

Neutral TonePronounced very light and quickHave no tone mark

e.g. ma

I’ve seen some posts claim that the Chinese tones are just like English, which convey the attitude or feeling of a speaker, however, it`s not the case. This idea is mixing up two different concepts. English doesn`t have tones since words don`t change the meanings when you pronounce them with different intonations. However, in Chinese, even with the same initial and final, different tones represent different characters and meanings. There are many Chinese characters with the same initials and finals. E.g.

Common Tone Rules

  • Third Tone Sandhi

When a third tone followed by another third tone, it should be pronounced as a second tone automatically. But the writing script should remain unchanged as the third tone mark. For example:
你好 (nǐ + hǎo) -> 你好 (ní hǎo)

我很 (wǒ + hěn + hǎo) -> 我很好 (wó hén hǎo)

  • Tone sandhi of “不”

“不” becomes a second tone when followed by a fourth tone character. It is a fourth tone syllable by itself and when followed by other four tones then the following will happen.

(Video) Chinese Pronunciation Guide – Tones (The Basics)

  • Tone sandhi of “一”

“一” is pronounced in first tone when it`s by itself, at the end of a word, or used as a number. When it is followed by a first tone, second tone, or third tone character though, “一” changes to the fourth tone. It is pronounced in the second tone when it precedes a fourth tone.

Part 3: Why Tones Matter?

If you can`t recognize the tone, you might always struggle figuring out what Chinese people said. And there are also many embarrassing situations you will encounter when communicating with Chinese people.

I met many Chinese learning quitters. They told me that they did want to learn mandarin. After they read the pinyin chart for two or three times in the first two lessons, they thought these Romanization letters were a piece of cake and it was time to move forward to learn more “real Chinese“. As a result of spending too little time on mastering the tones and proper pronunciations, the subsequent overload of similar vocabulary ruined their confidence, so they had to quit. Enough practice on your ears and mouth will help you survive, even though the beginning might be tedious and tough. Once you go through this essential part, you will lay an unbreakable foundation for your Chinese learning.

That`s why the tones matter.

Common Difficulties You Might meet

The purpose of this section is to clarify some common mistakes and difficulties you might meet when learning mandarin Chinese pronunciations. There are some distinct sounds in Chinese that are tricky to non-native speakers. Let`s conquer them one by one, thus there is less barrier in your pronunciation path.

Most of the difficult pinyin sounds are initials, like zh/ch/sh, z/c/s, j/q/x and r.

zhLike “j” in “jerk”, but with the tip of the tongue curled farther back
chLike “ch” in “church”, but with the tip of the tongue curled farther back
shLike “sh” in “ship”, but with the tip of the tongue curled farther back
zLike “ts” in “cats”
cLike “ts” in “cats”, with aspiration
sPronounced as in English, e.g. “s” in “see”
jAs “j” in jam and jump, but softer and the tongue touches the lower front teeth.
qAs “chee” in “cheese”, but softer and the tongue touches the lower front teeth
xAs “shee” in “sheep”, but softer and the tongue touches the lower front teeth
rAs in “right” in English, but with lips unrounded, and the tip of the tongue curled farther back. Always pronounce the Chinese “r” sound with a nice smile.

There is also a final “ü” that most foreigners can`t pronounce very well.

There is a pinyin “i” sound in it, and you need to make your mouth shape as the pinyin “u”, then the “ü” sound comes out.

(Video) A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Tones | Chinese Pronunciation Tutorial in 2020

Part 4: Tips and Suggestions: How to improve your Chinese pronunciation

1. Master the basic rules of pronunciation and tones.

Knowing basic greetings like “你好” “你好吗” in Chinese is not hard, but advancing beyond the warm up greetings is quite different endeavor. As a beginner, the most important thing is be familiar with all pinyin sounds, spelling rules and tone changing rules. If possible, you`d better find a professional teacher who can speak standard mandarin Chinese and explain the differences among those similar sounds properly.

There are many learning experiences sharing about how to improve your Chinese pronunciation. Regarding the tones, besides the regular tones practice, there are some learners who share their methods like mastering without using tone marks.

2. Having Enough input: Make your own language environment

If you are learning Chinese in China or luckily be surrounded by a group of native speakers, just try to talk to them with what you`ve learnt. If you can`t follow them at the beginning, don`t feel embarrassed or upset. It`s a quite common phase. What you need to do is at least distinguishing the words you`ve learnt and be more familiar with the intonation Chinese language make. Gradually you can connect all the words and figure out what they are talking about.

If you don`t have the language environment, make it yourself! There are tons of online learning resources (well, surely you can find them at Dig Mandarin. :) ) No matter Chinese learning audios or videos, you can make use of your fragment time to listen. Sometimes, the learning content is a little bit tedious, afterwards you can find some Chinese songs to perfect your accent. Also, learning from movies and TV shows is also a great way to train your sense of the language, and know more about Chinese culture as well.

3. Having Enough output

i. Practice in words, phrases and sentences

Don`t just practice the individual characters. There is phonetic change in the flow of speech, especially the tones. When you first begin to study Mandarin Chinese pronunciation, it is beneficial to practice pairs of tones. Begin with a word you already know, such as很好(hěnhǎo, very good). This phrase uses the second then the third tone. Say this phrase out loud several times and listen for the tone and rhythm of the syllables. Studying this natural rhythm of the language will help you pronounce new words you come across. Also, the increased accuracy of your Mandarin pronunciation will help you say sentences more smoothly.The start is of course tough, however after going through it; the longer sentences will be much easier for you.

ii. Slow down and be clear

Pay attention that you do not speak too fast. It`s very natural to speak in a normal speed just like the native speaker. But you are just a beginner who might not pronounce the standard sound. Speed is the last thing you should care about. Just SLOW DOWN! Make your sounds clear and correct. If people can`t even understand you, do you seriously care about your speaking speed? After all, a successful communication is the goal and accuracy is the most important thing.

iii. Practice makes perfect

As we mentioned above, you need to cultivate a keen sense of Chinese language by enough input. Some when you are practice by yourself and not with others, you are creating the illusion that you are speaking Chinese well. The truth might be only you yourself can understand or of course your teacher can guess what you are trying to say exactly. So the only key is practice, practice and practice. If once doesn`t work, then do it twice, triple…… You will finally get it.

(Video) Learn Chinese Pronunciation/Pinyin/Alphabet-Ultimate Guide

4. Learn from your mistakes

As you know, Chinese people are very kind, so encouragement and compliment will be the main trend of their comments to your speaking. Confidence is necessary, but their kindness is not your reason to ignore the mistakes and your foreign pronunciation. Ask your Chinese friends to point out your inaccuracy and specific problems directly. Of course, it can`t be better if the one friend is a professional teacher. Then take down the notes of your common mistakes and analyze them one by one. This process will help you conquer your problems. It may be discouraging sometimes to hear about so many mistakes, but you will learn a lot from them quickly and it will help you to improve much faster than you think.

You also can observe if other people understand you. Regardless their kindness, understanding is a good start anyhow. In addition you can try to prepare a paragraph on a specific topic, then record your own speech. Listen to it several times to see if it`s weird in your perspective. Then ask your Chinese friends or teacher help you checking it. If possible, you can also compare your own recordings with the native speaker`s. It`s very clear to hear the differences of sounds, rhythms and intonation. Adjusting and improving your pronunciation is what you can do naturally. Focusing on the difficulties and repeat it slower. Just make sure you are pronouncing the right way.

5. Review all the time

Acquiring accurate pronunciation is a long-tern battle. Don`t be naïve as if you can master the authentic pronunciation in one shot. Record all your mistakes and misunderstanding of some specific concepts. Review your notes from time to time. It will call your attention and remind you the right way you should act. One day you will finally master them all.

Part 5: Resources

1. Video Lessons

a)Learn Complete Chinese Pronunciation in 16 Days! – This pronunciation course is produced by DigMandarin. With this course, you will:

  • Know how to pronounce every Chinese sound clearly with the proper accent.
  • Understand the phonetic alphabet (Pinyin) and how it relates to pronunciation.
  • Learn each of the 21 Pinyin Initials.
  • Learn each of the basic 6 Finals, as well as the 30 compound Finals.
  • Know how to reduce your accent and sound more like a native.
  • Learn and understand the trickiest letters that trip up most beginners, including the dreaded Mandarin tones.
  • Experience detailed explanations which show you how to shape your mouth, place your tongue, and produce the required sounds.

b)Fluent Forever – Just as I illustrated above, these 3 videos provide instructions to lead you get basic understanding about Chinese pronunciation, tones and spelling rules. Its whiteboard illustrating way is quite clear and easy to follow.

c) Yoyo Chinese – With an interview by Dig Mandarin. This group offers over 100 YouTube videos designed to help you learn Mandarin more easily. An addition 300-400 videos are available if you pay for the premium membership on the website. Beginners can make great strides in language learning with the systemic video organization that naturally builds world knowledge and pronunciation skills.

2. Audio Lessons

ChineseClass101 – ChineseClass101`s lesson number is pretty big. Regarding the pronunciation part, they provide the learners 5 episodes to illustrate the Chinese word construction, tones, related tone rules and difficult sounds. It basically covers the main idea of mandarin Chinese pronunciation.

3. Tools & APP

a) Pinyin Tools – If you want to learn about how to use Pinyin to aid your Chinese verbal language acquisition, Dig Mandarin recommends for apps: pinyin chart, tone chart, Pinyin to Chinese character converter app.

b) Pleco – This dictionary is one of the most useful and frequently used ones for people learning Mandarin. You can search by either the Chinese character or pinyin spelling. If you have heard a new Chinese word that you do not understand, you can easily search through this site to figure out what it is. There is a premium version as well which includes audio pronunciations.

4. Book

New Practice Chinese Readers – This Mandarin Chinese textbook is my personal favorite. It combines a carefully laid-out learning structure ideal for language with audio files for better pronunciation and understanding. The lessons include vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar and sentence structure and even cultural information. New Practice for Chinese Readers is available on Amazon and from major book retailers.

(Video) Introduction to Chinese Pronunciation Using Pinyin | Pinyin Lesson 01


How do I start learning Chinese for beginners? ›

How to Start Learning Chinese: Your Comprehensive Guide
  1. Step 1: Learn Pinyin and the 5 Tones. ...
  2. Step 2: Gather Your Resources. ...
  3. Step 3: Practice a Little Each Day. ...
  4. Step 4: Use Spaced Repetition to Never Forget a Word. ...
  5. Step 5: Listen to Chinese a Lot. ...
  6. Step 6: Learn Basic Sentence Structure.
18 Jul 2022

How do you memorize Chinese pronunciation? ›

How to Remember Chinese Tones and Sound Like a Native
  1. Say the tones with gestures.
  2. Practice tones in pairs.
  3. Exaggerate the tones.
  4. Mark each tone with a different color.
  5. Always have a dictionary.
  6. Listen to Chinese radio or watch TV.
29 Apr 2022

How do you pronounce Chinese words correctly? ›

The first tone is steady with a high pitch. The second tone starts with a middle pitch then rises

Can I learn Chinese in 4 months? ›

With the right work and attitude, you can make massive progress in your Chinese learning in three months. And if having a conversation in Mandarin Chinese is your primary goal, it can be achievable with just three months of study, even if you're starting from zero.

What are the 5 tones of Chinese? ›

The 5 Chinese Tones and How to Master Them
  • First tone (flat tone)
  • Second tone (rising tone)
  • Third tone (dip tone)
  • Fourth tone (falling tone)
  • Fifth tone (neutral tone)
20 Aug 2022

How many Chinese pronunciations are there? ›

What Makes a Syllable? The Mandarin language has 21 consonants and 16 vowels. They can be combined together to create more than 400 mono-syllabic sounds. There are also four tones that change the meaning of the syllable, so in theory, there are about 1600 possible syllables.

How can I speak Chinese tone naturally? ›

  1. Listen and repeat.
  2. Speak slowly at first.
  3. Exaggerate.
  4. Work with a native speaker.
  5. Record yourself.
  6. Practice until tone starts to come naturally.
4 Apr 2022

How do you say ABC in Chinese? ›

Learn the Chinese Alphabet in Less Than 20 min! Pinyin & Zhuyin ...

How do you pronounce Xiao? ›

How to Pronounce Xiao? (CORRECTLY) | Genshin Impact

How do you say XO in Chinese? ›

How to Pronounce XO? (CORRECTLY) Meaning ... - YouTube

Which language is hardest to learn? ›

15 of the hardest languages to learn, for English speakers -...
  • Russian.
  • Hindi.
  • Vietnamese.
  • Thai.
  • Korean.
  • 13. Japanese.
  • Mandarin Chinese.
  • Arabic.
7 Nov 2021

How fast can I learn Chinese? ›

According to the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) scale, it will take English speakers 88 weeks (2,200 hours of active learning) to reach native/bilingual Chinese proficiency. Chinese is one of the 5 languages which is most challenging to learn for native English speakers.

What is harder to learn Chinese or Japanese? ›

Japanese is slightly easier to learn. But, Chinese is much more widely spoken. Both languages have their pros and cons.

What should I learn first in Chinese? ›

We would recommend you to start learning Mandarin first since it's said to be easier to learn and then build up to Cantonese.

What are the basic Chinese words? ›

Basic Mandarin Chinese Words and Phrases
  • Hello: Nǐhǎo (Nee how)
  • Thank you: Xièxiè (Shieh-shieh)
  • You're welcome: Bù kèqì (Boo kuh-chi)
  • Good morning: Zǎo (Zhow)
  • Goodnight: Wǎn ān (One-un)
  • My name is…: ...
  • My friend's name is...: Wǒ de péngyǒu jiào… ...
  • Where is the bathroom: Xǐshǒujiān zài nǎlǐ? (See-sow-jian zai na-lee?)
29 Jul 2022

How hard is Chinese? ›

The Chinese language is often considered one of the world's most difficult languages to learn, but this sentiment is a major oversimplification. Like any language, learning Chinese has its challenges. As a language learner, placing yourself in an ideal learning environment is key to learning Chinese.

How many hours a day should I study Chinese? ›

I suggest you spend at least two hours a day studying, which will ensure you can achieve the intermediate level within three years. These two hours should be spent effectively, studying all aspects of the language: active reading, listening, speaking, and writing.

Which tone do you read the longest in Chinese language? ›

Lengths of Mandarin Chinese Tones. With the same syllable is pronounced in different Tones, some Tones lasts longer than the others. Generally, the Third Tone lasts the longest, the Fourth Tone is the shortest.

What is Ma in Mandarin? ›

吗 (ma) is simply for turning statements into yes-no questions. 吧 (ba) is used as a tag question to ask for agreement or confirmation with what is being said. All can be thought of as a kind of spoken question mark.

Which language has the most tone? ›

In the most widely spoken tonal language, Mandarin Chinese, tones are distinguished by their distinctive shape, known as contour, with each tone having a different internal pattern of rising and falling pitch.

Do you pronounce y in Mandarin? ›

y sounds exactly the same as “i”, but “i” can not stand at the beginning of one syllable but y can. To pronounce y, make a smiling face, spread your mouth and make the sound out. w is the conversion of “u” when no initial is present.

How is R pronounced in Mandarin? ›

This may seem strange, but the Mandarin r- sound really is very similar to the ch-, sh-, and zh- sounds. r- is pronounced by making the "French j" sound like in the words "leisure" and "pleasure". While making that sound, slowly pull the tip of your tongue further into the back of your mouth.

How do you say l in Mandarin? ›

Open your mouth slightly, make the tip of your tongue contact the upper alveolar bridge soft and then let the airflow comes out from the sides of the tongue-tip with the vibration of vocal cord. The sound of [l] is similar to the “l” in English word “like”.

Is there a pattern to Chinese tones? ›

They correspond to the phonology of Middle Chinese, and are named even or level (平 píng), rising (上 shǎng), departing or going (去 qù), and entering or checked (入 rù). (The last three are collectively referred to as oblique 仄 (zè), an important concept in poetic tone patterns.)
Four tones (Middle Chinese)
꜂上 shǎng去꜄ qù
꜀平 píng入꜆ ru(ʔ)

How long does it take to master Chinese tones? ›

Most people who are interested in learning have two questions: "Is it hard to learn Chinese?" and "How long does it take to learn Chinese?" Based on government sources and anecdotes, Three to five years is a good estimate of how long it takes to learn Chinese fluently, but there are so many factors involved.

How can I improve my Chinese vocabulary? ›

Here's our 5 top tips:
  1. Read, Read, Read. When I studied Chinese in school, I used to curse the long texts I would receive for homework. ...
  2. Listen to Chinese Songs. Learning through song is a brilliant way to learn any language. ...
  3. Review Regularly. ...
  4. Talk Regularly. ...
  5. Use Vocabulary Trees, Flashcards.
10 Oct 2017

Is Chinese easy to learn? ›

Chinese is one of the easiest languages to learn

When it comes to the issue of grammatical complexity, Chinese grammar is relatively simple. Unlike most European languages, it does not feature complicated constructs like cases and genders. It also treats tenses in a very simplistic way.

How do you write F in Chinese? ›

Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Chinese language.
Chinese Alphabet.
Chinese AlphabetEnglishPinyin Pronunciation
艾弗Fài fú
23 more rows

What is a in Chinese? ›

A 月 (yuè) B 官 (guān) C 匹 (pǐ) D 刀 (dāo)

How do I pronounce Nguyen? ›

Correct Pronunciation of Nguyen

N'win/Ng'win: One syllable. Ng'win is closest to the correct Vietnamese pronunciation. Noo-yen/Ngoo-yen: Two syllables. Nuh-goo-yen: Three syllables.

How do you say Xin? ›

Pronunciation of Xin

In Chinese, "Xin" should be pronounced as the english word "sin", not "shin".

How do you pronounce xie xie? ›

How to Pronounce Xie Xie 谢谢 (THANK YOU in Chinese) - YouTube

How do you pronounce Xu Kai? ›

How to Pronounce Xu Kai - YouTube

How do you say XI in Mandarin? ›

"xi" not "she"/Learn Chinese with HelloChinese - YouTube

How do you pronounce Zi in Chinese? ›

How to Pronounce “zi ci si zhi chi shi ri” in Mandarin Chinese - YouTube

What should I learn first in Chinese? ›

We would recommend you to start learning Mandarin first since it's said to be easier to learn and then build up to Cantonese.

What are the basic Chinese words? ›

Basic Mandarin Chinese Words and Phrases
  • Hello: Nǐhǎo (Nee how)
  • Thank you: Xièxiè (Shieh-shieh)
  • You're welcome: Bù kèqì (Boo kuh-chi)
  • Good morning: Zǎo (Zhow)
  • Goodnight: Wǎn ān (One-un)
  • My name is…: ...
  • My friend's name is...: Wǒ de péngyǒu jiào… ...
  • Where is the bathroom: Xǐshǒujiān zài nǎlǐ? (See-sow-jian zai na-lee?)
29 Jul 2022

How long does it take to learn Chinese? ›

According to the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) scale, it will take English speakers 88 weeks (2,200 hours of active learning) to reach native/bilingual Chinese proficiency. Chinese is one of the 5 languages which is most challenging to learn for native English speakers.

Is Chinese hard to learn? ›

Mandarin Chinese

Interestingly, the hardest language to learn is also the most widely spoken native language in the world. Mandarin Chinese is challenging for a number of reasons. First and foremost, the writing system is extremely difficult for English speakers (and anyone else) accustomed to the Latin alphabet.

Is Japanese or Chinese easier? ›

Japanese is slightly easier to learn. But, Chinese is much more widely spoken. Both languages have their pros and cons.

Which is better Chinese or Japanese? ›

Another thing to think about as you weigh your options: widespread use. Chinese is second on the list of the most spoken languages in the world, with 1,117 million Chinese speakers worldwide. Japanese, on the other hand, doesn't crack the top 10, boasting only about one-tenth of that, at roughly 128 million speakers.

What does Ho Wah mean in Chinese? ›

Chinese English Pinyin Dictionary

Search with English, Pinyin, or Chinese characters. 好哇 hǎo wā hurray! hurrah!

What is the reply to Ni Hao? ›

Simple Responses in Chinese

Friend: Ni hao ma? (how are you?) You: Wo hen hao! Xie xie. Ni ne? (I am very good, thanks.

Is Chinese worth learning? ›

If there's one language in the world that's worth learning, it's Mandarin Chinese. It's the language with the most native speakers in the world, at more than nine hundred million – and, as the country's economy grows, it's sure to be spoken more widely.

What is the easiest language to learn? ›

15 of the easiest languages to learn for English speakers - ranked
  • Frisian. Frisian is thought to be one of the languages most closely related to English, and therefore also the easiest for English-speakers to pick up. ...
  • Dutch. ...
  • Norwegian. ...
  • Spanish. ...
  • Portuguese. ...
  • Italian. ...
  • French. ...
  • Swedish.
24 Oct 2021

Can I learn Chinese in 2 years? ›

Of course, this could be divided up in very different ways depending on how you structure your learning. Studying five hours a day, five days a week? FSI says you will need 88 weeks, somewhere between 1.5–2 years. Another yardstick is the Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK)—the standard proficiency test for Mandarin Chinese.

What is the 2nd hardest language to learn? ›

2. Arabic. Arabic is the queen of poetic languages, the 6th official language of the UN and second on our list of toughest languages to learn.

What is the 20 hardest language to learn? ›

The Hardest Languages in the World to Learn
  • Arabic.
  • Russian.
  • Korean.
  • Navajo.
  • Finnish.
  • Vietnamese.
  • Mongolian.
  • Hungarian.

Is Chinese harder than Korean? ›

Generally speaking, we might assert that Korean is easier for an English speaker to learn than Mandarin Chinese. But this is very relative. In fact, the US Foreign Service Institute assigns Mandarin Chinese and Korean the same level of difficulty. Both languages are in “Category Four”.


1. How to Pronounce Chinese Like a Native Speaker
(Learn Chinese with
2. A Comprehensive Chinese Pronunciation Demonstration: Reading All Existing Pinyin Syllables
(KEYs to Chinese)
3. Mandarin Chinese Pronunciation Pinyin Guide for Total Beginners by New Concept Mandarin
(New Concept Mandarin)
4. Master Chinese "zh ch sh r" | Pronunciation Training
(Grace Mandarin Chinese)
5. Learn Chinese Alphabet - 23 Initials Consonants|Learn Mandarin Chinese Alphabet Pinyin Pronunciation
6. Chinese Alphabet Pronunciation for Beginners The Tones in Chinese initials & finals
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